Friday, February 21, 2020

Montaigne in his Apology for Raymond Sebond Essay - 1

Montaigne in his Apology for Raymond Sebond - Essay Example He continued to indicate that philosophers were teaching various ludicrous doctrines about the human soul and the gods, which they did not clearly understand. He posited that the philosophers spoke in earnest on such matters, and in the process, they concealed their ignorance so as to accommodate public image. His essay was created with an aim of supporting and defending Christianity. He quoted Plato’s statements on immorality of the soul. In his arguments, Plato stated that, â€Å"I desire to be dissolved†, and Montaigne added, â€Å"and to be with Jesus†. Montaigne sought to indicate how philosophers can be pervasive in their teachings. He demonstrated that some of Plato’s arguments made some of his disciples to desire premature grave, because they hoped to enjoy the things that he had promised them soon enough. He compared the work of ancient philosophers and Christianity with the aim of teaching that human beings cannot attain certainty. In the introduction of skeptic arguments, Montaigne quoted the work of Plato. In the ancient world, the skeptics, just like Plato, aimed at striking a difference between appearance and reality. Additionally, both Plato and skeptics held that through appearance, people could develop opinions, and if they had a chance to encounter reality, the result would be knowledge. Plato and the skeptics had developed assumptions that could be used to differentiate between grasping reality and appearance. A good example that was used by Montaigne was Plato’s depiction character of reality in his idea of beauty. The main difference between Plato and the skeptics was that Plato believed that it was possible to rasp reality via exercise of reason and philosophy; while on the other hand, the skeptics denied the possibility. Concerning the concept of reality and appearance, Montaigne concentrated on implications. He carefully analyzed both sides of the

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

FDT 1 week 4 Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

FDT 1 week 4 - Essay Example Pena-Nieto’s administration should consider applying border initiative-operation Rio Grande. Rio Grande centralized local, state, county and federal law enforcement intelligence. Similarly, Pena-Nieto’s government should use current available assets including the National Guard under the supervision of Texas Homeland Security Director (Hesterman, 2013, p. 153). There should be viable strategies aimed at enhancing security at the Mexico-Texas border. Sustainable techniques include paying officers overtime to enhance patrols, coordinating state agencies, and sharing information with federal agencies (Hesterman, 2013, p.154). Pena-Nieto’s government should initiate programs that offer ammunition and training to law enforcers and oversight of security agencies operating at the Mexico-Texas border. Currently, Pena-Nieto’s government uses the army to conduct police related activities, in contradiction of provisions outlined under the Posse Comitatus law. Nieto has an established and healthy working condition with bordering countries. The administration employs foreign-based agents to work in coordination with Interpol and other international organizations on drug-related issues (Gaines, 2011, p. 231). Employment of more law enforcement agents is a key success of the administration in addressing challenges of drug cartels along Mexico-Texas

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest and Clockwork Orange

One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest and Clockwork Orange In both Burgess and Kesey books we are hosted by characters that are rejected by society. Society which has impacted them so greatly, that it has caused them to make decisions that have affected the outcome of each of these brilliant novels. In the Clockwork Orange we are introduced to the character Alex. Alex in this novel can be viewed as the unreliable narrator, due to the fact that it is almost impossible to pick out what will be his next move in the novel, this creates an element of suspense. As we know the book is set in futuristic Britain and the way in which so called Futuristic Britain is laid out perhaps plays a big part in the behaviour of Alex. In One Flew over the Cuckoos Nest by Ken Kesey the narrator the Chief who is a half Indian man assumes the position of a half deaf, half dumb individual. Though his stance in the book shows his true position as through his eyes we see vividly what the other characters are like especially R.P McMurphy, we also throughout the book se e him as a reliable narrator. Though we wonder when reading one who flew over the Cuckoos nest, if the narrator should off in fact been R.P Mc Murphy. I say this because the majority of the novel is about him and his time in the insane ward, though we can firmly understand why he would not be suitable narrator because he would feel empowered to control the flow of the narration. However in Chief Bromdens case, he has not been lobotomized but freed and he is the one who tells the story of McMurphy and becomes an individual who we can trust to deliver the story accurately. The Chief tells us his story through memory and sometimes perhaps when he is sees a certain object he breaks down for example the fog. The Function of both narrators is to dictate the story and explore the faults in society. Through the psychological deterioration of McMurphy the Chief comments on how society has somewhat contributed to the downfall of R.P McMurphy. When we are first introduced to Alex we automatically as readers dislike him for the fact that he participates in ultraviolent activities and conforms to way of living which consists of going to milk bar, getting drugged up and beating someone up. However when look at Alexs we see an alternate view of society and somewhat we feel sympathetic about the way he behaves as he does not know any better, the writers in terms of both narrators forces the reader to consider what it would be like to live in their shoes of as well as highlighting the function each narrator holds. Based in an asylum in Oregon, One who flew over the Cuckoos nest uses the theme of Societys destruction of humans, the main protagonist succumbs to the machine and the machine suppresses him and his uniqueness. Here we see the main function of Chief Broomden as the narrator, we learn one of the many horrible truths about this hospital; he reveals that the hospital has not only destroyed his life but his compassion as w ell. The knowledge that we learn from Chief Broomden shows the sad life that the inmates live and how the machine is slowly tearing their humanity from them. The Chief begins by telling us what the insane asylum is like and in the opening sentence we hear him saying, Black boys commit sex acts in the hall and get it mopped up before I can catch them. This quote you can use in order to compare to the lifestyle of the inmates, they are individuals who have no future and have been mopped up by society and discarded. However in relation to this quote we cannot really put our full trust in The Chief as he proves that his memory is perhaps a little disjointed and his recollection of events are not exactly true. However The Chiefs character plays an important part in the way we are portrayed the story as his stance as a deaf and dumb person has allowed him to eavesdrop conversations which provide a sense of accuracy when they are conveyed towards the readers. The Chiefs character plays on the theme of Invisibility, the Chief throughout the book is in the background though his assumption that there are so called hidden machines contributes to his paranoia. The quote, I been silent so long now its gonna roar out of me like floodwaters and you think the guy telling this is ranting and raving my God; you think this is too horrible to have really happened, this is too awful to be the truth! But, please. Its still hard for me to have clear mind thinking on it. But its the truth even if it didnt happen. Is just an example of Chief Broomden mental state, this is taken from part one of One who flew over the cuckoos nest. Another example of the Chiefs character is where he is being taken in to be shaven he uses Air raids to describe what it feels like; however at this point from the story he has still not addressed the readers though the readers now have access to his thoughts. Kesey does this because he wants to get the readers familiar to the Chief and not discard the Chief just how society has discarded the Chief. In terms of the function of the narrator, one of Chief Broomden functions is to show what sort of hell patients of insane asylums go though just because they have been discarded by society. If we look at the last line of this quote we see Bromdens hallucinations are not just insane hallucinations but they provide a metaphorical perspective. In terms of the of the quote the metaphorical perspective is the fact that Broomden throughout this story regains some of his humanity back, he still sees the gruelling everyday life of the insane asylum. Even though the Chief is liable to hallucinations we have to trust the Chief to deliver the story of R.P McMurphy due to the fact that the Chief is our messenger. The Chief also assumes that the patients are controlled, by tiny machines who tell them what to do from the inside. However when R.P McMurphy is around he shows the patients by smashing the glass window that even if we cannot see that we are be ing controlled, he makes them remember that Society and especially Mrs Ratched are manipulating them. This occurs in the Clockwork Orange, as we see the story through the main protagonist Alex. Similarly in the Clockwork Orange Alex is subject to an experimentation which can also be interpreted as a way of tearing Alexs humanity away from him. He is subjected to the The Ludovico technique which makes him feel ill by thought and the viewing of violence. This quote represents Alexs lifestyle as he isnt like our other fellow narrator the Chief, The Korova milkbar sold milk-plus, milk plus vellocet or synthemesc or drencrom, which is what we were drinking. This would sharpen you up and make you ready for a bit of the old ultraviolence. We can tell for this quote that Alex lives in a world were sex, drugs and violence dominate. With Alex the way he talks symbolizes the fact that he is immature. He unlike the Chief is consistently uses slang vocabulary throughout the novel, the type of language that Alex uses is nadsat. Nadsat representing the Russian influence and socialist views that are presented in Burgesss Clockwork Orange. Burgess has cleverly implemented nadsat into this story as certain words have a hidden meaning. This in terms of our narrator provides a depth and deeper understanding of our main protagonist. For example in Alexs case the fact that Alex nicknames egg (eggiweg) and milk (moloko) gives us the image of a small baby who cannot fully pronounce a word. However it is clear that both egg and milk represent birth and youth. However the impact of Christ like figure in both novellas adds a religious aspect to the story. Both narrators acknowledge this, however in one who flew over the Cuckoos nest the Chief is more like the angel Gabriel and Mc Murphy is viewed more like Christ. In the Clockwork orange our narrator Alex can be interpreted as a Christ like figure. Alex in Clockwork orange serves two functions first as narrator and secondly as martyr figure. In terms of the martyr figure, Alex is seen to give who he is in order to conform to the system. The fact that Alex attempts to kill himself in the last part of the story shows how society can repress you that much that the only option is to take you own life. Alexs narration is similar to that of Christs final three days, as we know from the bible Jesus dies, buried and comes back to life. This is similar to Alex, Alex is caught by the police, thrown in prison and comes back to normal. Also in part two Alex makes a few comparisons to that of Christ, by turning the other cheek after being hit in the face. In relation to structure, when looking at A Clockwork Orange we can say that the novel is structured like that of a musical composition. The novel is structured in 3 parts, 7 chapters and each chapter conforms to an ABA pattern. When looking at part 1 we can see the similarity in part 3 as it mirrors each other. However part 2 is very different from both part 1 and 3. Both chapter 1 and 3 take are situated around Alexs home or area, however part 2 is taking place when Alex is in prison. When looking at Part 1 we see Alex saying Whats it going to be then, eh?, the same question is asked by the Prison guard in Part 2. When looking at the structure of the plot we see that the plot itself contains inversions. For example if we look back at Part one we see that Alex preys on other characters, however if we look at Part 3 Alex is the one who is getting preyed upon. When comparing the structure of A Clockwork Orange to One who flew over the cuckoos nest we see that that the book is seen to be a work of social criticism. This meaning that this book in a sense can be viewed as record book, as throughout the novel us as the audience develop our knowledge on each of these characters. When looking at individual chapters in the book Chapters 12 to 14 stands out as both of them start and end up quickly. The reason for this is perhaps to show how our narrator Chief Bromdens incoherent interpretation of the world around him. Our narrator throughout these two chapters in particular but also in most of the book presents only very short accounts of what is happening in the insane asylum. However when looking at Chief Broomden narrations in the relation to the structure he doesnt focus on what is around him, for example when the character Old Rawler commits suicide the details provided by the Chief are not clear at all. The Chief hardly ever in the story goes into detail what is around him, only when the fog is around he goes into description about the fog and how it affects him a nd the other patients on the ward. Bromden then in Chapter 15 compares the so called fog machine that the mental institution apparently have to the fog that he witnessed during the War. The story spoken by the Chief suggests to us that perhaps the reason why the Chief does not describe what he sees in full is perhaps due to an incident that happened in the war.

Monday, January 20, 2020

We have Decided Essay -- essays research papers

Since nearly the beginning of time, adultery has been thought of as morally wrong. Marriage, on the other hand, has been thought of as a sacred institution shared by most of the people and religions of the world. In the â€Å"Lais† written by Marie de France, we are given insight into the inner workings of five adulterous affairs, six pre-marital sexual encounters, and one instance of impure thoughts. Although Marie de France does not seem to condone adultery, she writes in a manner that allows the reader to feel possible sympathy with it, depending upon the situation. In fact, she seems to separate her lays into two categories. The first category consists of extenuating circumstances in which the reader is made (allowed) to feel empathy and compassion for the couple such as in â€Å"Yonec† and â€Å"Lanval.† The second category however seems to combine the ideas of sympathy and disdain. In this category belong only the lais of â€Å"Bisclaveret† and â₠¬Å"Equitan.† Although the lais focus entirely on sex outside of marriage, the affairs that take place in these poems were often rewarded with various prizes that included children, wealth, healing, and loving marriages. In the first lai, â€Å"Yonec† tells the seeming tragic tale of a beautiful young woman who is kept locked away in a castle by her rich and old husband. The poem tells us that â€Å"he kept her there more than seven years† (37), and that she was never allowed to come down not even â€Å"for a relative, not for a friend† (40). The young woman, who had no contact with anyone other than her husband’s sister, began to let herself go. â€Å"She lost her beauty, as a lady would† (48), when she no longer took care of herself. At this point in the lai, the readers feel ultimate sympathy for this unnamed woman. Although she is bound in a sacred marriage to a man, we look upon this situation as cruel and unjust. Our heart goes out to this woman. We first begin to feel sympathy for her when we are told she is married to an older man who keeps her locked away, but our sympathy deepens when we realize she is beginning to lose all hope. When we are told her beaut y fades, our hearts are filled with not only sadness, but also a desire to see her made whole again. The lai continues with the woman lamenting her sorrows when she says â€Å"God, who have power over all, Please hear, please answer now my call† (62-63). These two lines set this lai apart from all... ...rds the husband. Overall, I believe that Marie de France does a wonderful job in creating the many poems in which the stories of true love and betrayal are told. I do not feel that she condones adultery in any way, but rather presents a situation and allows the reader to decide their thoughts and opinions for themselves. Perhaps it is the idea that such powerful and pure love exists that allows us to put aside our moral and values if only for a minute to accept the affairs that occur in these poems. The reader is allowed to feel sympathy and understanding for the couples in some lais while they feel disdain and contempt in others. Sympathy arises in the situations in which there are cruel or unusual circumstances, while contempt develops when mischief and evil are plotted. Overall, these poems provide us with insight into fairytale and nightmare like situations. One moment as we read, we as readers are hoping the couples end up together, while the next moment we are hoping for revenge. In the end, Ma rie de France’s lais take us on a wonderful journey that is filled with many exciting highs and disastrous lows. The lais were a pleasure to read and a joyous adventure to undertake. We have Decided Essay -- essays research papers Since nearly the beginning of time, adultery has been thought of as morally wrong. Marriage, on the other hand, has been thought of as a sacred institution shared by most of the people and religions of the world. In the â€Å"Lais† written by Marie de France, we are given insight into the inner workings of five adulterous affairs, six pre-marital sexual encounters, and one instance of impure thoughts. Although Marie de France does not seem to condone adultery, she writes in a manner that allows the reader to feel possible sympathy with it, depending upon the situation. In fact, she seems to separate her lays into two categories. The first category consists of extenuating circumstances in which the reader is made (allowed) to feel empathy and compassion for the couple such as in â€Å"Yonec† and â€Å"Lanval.† The second category however seems to combine the ideas of sympathy and disdain. In this category belong only the lais of â€Å"Bisclaveret† and â₠¬Å"Equitan.† Although the lais focus entirely on sex outside of marriage, the affairs that take place in these poems were often rewarded with various prizes that included children, wealth, healing, and loving marriages. In the first lai, â€Å"Yonec† tells the seeming tragic tale of a beautiful young woman who is kept locked away in a castle by her rich and old husband. The poem tells us that â€Å"he kept her there more than seven years† (37), and that she was never allowed to come down not even â€Å"for a relative, not for a friend† (40). The young woman, who had no contact with anyone other than her husband’s sister, began to let herself go. â€Å"She lost her beauty, as a lady would† (48), when she no longer took care of herself. At this point in the lai, the readers feel ultimate sympathy for this unnamed woman. Although she is bound in a sacred marriage to a man, we look upon this situation as cruel and unjust. Our heart goes out to this woman. We first begin to feel sympathy for her when we are told she is married to an older man who keeps her locked away, but our sympathy deepens when we realize she is beginning to lose all hope. When we are told her beaut y fades, our hearts are filled with not only sadness, but also a desire to see her made whole again. The lai continues with the woman lamenting her sorrows when she says â€Å"God, who have power over all, Please hear, please answer now my call† (62-63). These two lines set this lai apart from all... ...rds the husband. Overall, I believe that Marie de France does a wonderful job in creating the many poems in which the stories of true love and betrayal are told. I do not feel that she condones adultery in any way, but rather presents a situation and allows the reader to decide their thoughts and opinions for themselves. Perhaps it is the idea that such powerful and pure love exists that allows us to put aside our moral and values if only for a minute to accept the affairs that occur in these poems. The reader is allowed to feel sympathy and understanding for the couples in some lais while they feel disdain and contempt in others. Sympathy arises in the situations in which there are cruel or unusual circumstances, while contempt develops when mischief and evil are plotted. Overall, these poems provide us with insight into fairytale and nightmare like situations. One moment as we read, we as readers are hoping the couples end up together, while the next moment we are hoping for revenge. In the end, Ma rie de France’s lais take us on a wonderful journey that is filled with many exciting highs and disastrous lows. The lais were a pleasure to read and a joyous adventure to undertake.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Process A Buying A House Essay

Your Journey to Home Ownership Buying a house is an exciting process; especially if it is your first home.   It may be a long or short process. But no matter how long it takes you will follow at least four steps throughout your journey to home ownership.   First, you will check your credit and examine your finances.   Next, you will shop for a mortgage loan.   Then you will shop for the right house!   Finally, you will move in.   Remember, you or other family members will probably live in your new house for the rest of your lives.   That is why it is important to understand the steps in the home buying process.   This brochure walks you through the process of buying a home. CREDIT AND FINANCES Know Your Credit It is not only important to know your credit scores, but to know your credit.   Know the basics about your credit before a mortgage lender pulls your credit scores.   It is helpful to write out a summary of your credit history as you know it.   What are your monthly payments?   If you have been late with payments, write down which ones, how often you have been late, the current status, and explain what led to the circumstances.   Also write down your loan and credit card balances.   And explain any collections, judgements, or other delinquencies that you think might affect your credit.   This way both you and the lender know what to expect when your credit report is pulled. Know Your Finances You must cover some part of a down payment (up to 20% of the purchase price) and some closing costs (at least 3% of the purchase price).   It is important to know that cash in the bank is not the only source of funds that are acceptable to a lender.   Will a relative give you part of your down payment as a gift?   If so, have them write a letter stating the amount they will give and include that amount as a cash asset on your loan application. Do you have an insurance policy with a cash value?   Do you have a retirement fund?   Include a most recent statement from those policies.   These cash assets help you to qualify even if the cash is not on hand.   If you need to use these sources, your lender will instruct you how to document the withdrawals or have the gift monies transferred when the time comes. SHOP FOR A MORTGAGE LOAN Shop for the Right Mortgage Company First, determine if you will use a commercial bank, a direct mortgage lender, or a mortgage broker.   The best thing to do is call each one and ask what programs and services they offer.   They can answer basic questions without taking a loan application or pulling your credit.   However, be careful about quoted rates.   Make sure that rates ore given for the type of loan you are interested in and qualify for.   In other words, if you are looking for a construction loan, don’t compare home improvement loan rates. Shop for the Right Mortgage Once you have decided what type of company to work with, they will help you determine the right mortgage program for you.   They will present you with scenarios for both fixed and adjustable rate mortgages; for 15-20-30 year loan periods.   They will also present loans for your specific financial and credit situation, for first time homebuyers, and for existing houses or new construction.   They will also tell you what loan amount you qualify for, what your down payment and closing cost cash contribution should be, and what your maximum purchase price can be. SHOP FOR YOUR HOUSE Location Location Location Take a drive around the communities that you are attracted to.   Determine how close they are to good schools, shopping locations, and other things that are important to you.   Be sure to note your commute to work from these areas noting accessibility to freeways and main roads.   Once you narrow the areas you like, write down what your home should look like and features it should have – how many bedrooms, bathrooms, 2-story or ranch style, older home or newer construction.   Once you decide these factors, you are ready to go shopping. Real Estate Agents Real estate agents can help you find what you are looking for.   The MLS allows the agent to plug in your parameters – price, style, location, size, amenities – and identify several houses for you to look at.   The agent will also present your offer to the seller, and help you negotiate contract items such as seller paid closing costs or repairs to be done prior to closing. MOVE IN Closing Once your loan is approved, the house is appraised and inspected, you will meet with a title company to sign the mortgage and title documents.   You will provide a copy of a homeowners insurance policy.   The seller will provide a transfer of title, a pest inspection, and general safety inspection or occupancy certificate, if required by your municipality.   The title company will provide you an insurance policy protecting against old liens against the property.   Once all documents are signed, the items are filed with the real estate department in your county, and YOU GET YOUR HOUSE KEYS! Moving In Remember to do things like submit a change of address at the post office.   And, if you are a renter, notify your landlord at least 30 days prior to moving.   Also, remember that you will now be responsible for paying property taxes and homeowners insurance.   If these items are not included with your mortgage payments, be sure to make billing and payment arrangements right away. RESOURCES Fannie Mae  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.fanniemae.com/homebuyers/index.jhtml;jsessionid=JNHAKUJNMMPBVJ2FQSHSFGI?&p=Overview Freddie Mac  Ã‚   http://www.freddiemac.com/corporate/buying_and_owning.html FHA  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.fha.com/ VA  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.homeloans.va.gov/ HUD  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.hud.gov/offices/hsg/index.cfm Bankrate  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   http://www.bankrate.com/brm/rate/mtg_home.asp?link=5   

Friday, January 3, 2020

Impact of Big Business on Politics and the Economy Essay

After the Civil war, large businesses ruled America. Prior to the industrial revolution, the government upheld a hands-off approach towards business. Under the laissez-faire principle, free, unregulated markets led to competition, yet this system suffered under the wrath of growing corporations. The impact of big business on the economy and politics was immense during 1870 to 1899. Corporations were growing significantly in number and size, which had a domineering affect on American economy and defined American life. The growing corporations in America dominated most of the economy, creating a large gap between the rich and the poor. During this time period food, lightening, and fuel prices declined significantly, and the cost of living†¦show more content†¦This illustrates that the Senate is controlled by big business, and how easily wealthy people had power over the government. Moreover, the railroad presidents were seen as kings, they could delay lawsuits, control the government and the people, corrupt communities, and control the press (DOC B). Important railroad companies dictated government policies because the legal system favored railroad interests. Further, trying to better the political system, the Populist Party made themselves known. Their platform demanded that the government be restored to the hands of the â€Å"plain people.† They wanted to end oppression, injustice, and poverty (DOC F). Evidently, they were dedicated to political and social reform, and urged that t he government be strengthened and take responsibility of the people. The harsh working conditions resulting from industrialization drove laborers to organize into unions. Economist David A. Wells compares working in a factory to working in the military because workers are taught to perform one single task. Moreover, manufacturing has largely taken away workers’ pride in their work (DOC C). Mass production techniques led to specialization of labor, which subsequently decreased workers’ pride in their craft, as well as left workers largely unskilled. Further Samuel Gompers, founder of the AF to L, addressed the International Labor Congress in Chicago and stated that people should not be considered property. He advocated that laborShow MoreRelatedThe Implications Of Big Business1304 Words   |  6 PagesImplications of Big Business in America: Positive and Negative Aspects of Large Corporations for Society Big business has a constructive and positive influence on America. Corporations contribute much more to a country’s economic well being. Bigger businesses are more productive, pay higher salaries and hourly wages, generate more jobs, and are more successful in international markets. However, not everyone believes big business has a positive impact in the US. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

Definition Of Customary International Law - 1710 Words

Within the scope of customary international law there are some varying norms that the international law community must deal with, which can be broken down into three different categories from most important to least important: 1) norms in which the international community allows no derogation, these are known as peremptory norms or jus cogens, 2) norms that might allow for derogation, and 3) norms that aren’t binding but some might argue should be. The classification of these customary norms is based off of both state practice and opinio juris. In order to determine state practice the states may look towards each other and how they react in similar scenarios. One debate surrounding this area is determining how many states need to sign off on an action to determine that sufficient state practice is occurring. Two sides of the argument are the actual number states versus the regionalization of the states. Opinio juris is defined as a state engaging in a certain activity because they believe they are under legal obligation to act. The idea of peremptory norms is older than modern international law itself (113). The idea of peremptory norms stems from the belief that certain actions are so heinous that in order for these to be prevented states shall not be allowed to derogate from adherence. The Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties shows the importance of peremptory norms in both Article 53 and 64. Article 53 states that a treaty is void if at the time of itsShow MoreRelatedPublic International Law Is Formed By Sovereign States1463 Words   |  6 PagesPublic International law is formed by sovereign states, for sovereign states and governed by the notion of consent. 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